Home page - Search Previous issues
Estimation of body fat mass in pregnant women by a new method using bioelectrical impedance analysis with compensation for intrauterine component weight
Y. Ueda, M. Maruo, H. Nakano, Y. Honda, T. Miyama, M. Nishizawa and S.B. Heymsfield
Comparison of two bioelectrical impedance analysis instruments for determining body composition in adolescent girls
J. Nichols, S. Going, M. Loftin, D. Stewart, E. Nowicki and J. Pickrel
Validation of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for estimation of body composition in Black, White and Hispanic adolescent girls
S. Going , J. Nichols, M. Loftin, D. Stewart, T. Lohman, G. Tuuri, K. Ring, J. Pickrel, R. Blew and J. Stevens
Effect of isothermal air on measurement of body composition by air displacement plethysmography
J. Jackson, S. Lyons, P. Bishop, M. Richardson and Y. Neggers
Nutritional, health perception and behavioral factors are associated with body composition in elderly Puerto Rican women
C.C. Douglas, A.L. Willig, J.D. Ard, M. López-Alarcón and J.R. Fernández
Cole modelling of multiple frequency impedance data for body composition analysis
L.C. Ward, T. Essex and K. Sharpe
International Journal of Body Composition Research 2006 Vol. 4 No. 4: 145-152
Y. Ueda1, M. Maruo1, H. Nakano1, Y. Honda2, T. Miyama2, M. Nishizawa2 and S.B. Heymsfield3
1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hyogo Prefectural Kaibara Hospital , Hyogo , Japan ; 2 TANITA Institute, Tokyo , Japan ; 3 Obesity Research Center , St. Luke's/ Roosevelt Hospital , College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University , New York , USA ; and Merck & Co, Rahway , NJ , USA .
We evaluated a new system for the measurement of maternal fat mass (FM) by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) with compensation for intrauterine component weight. The leg-to-leg impedance was measured by a body fat meter (TBF-410: Tanita) immediately before and after parturition. Maternal FM values were calculated by a compensation method that deducted the intrauterine component weight from the body weight. The intrauterine weight was calculated from the sum of fetal, placental, and amniotic eights that were actually measured at cesarean section or ultrasonically estimated immediately before parturition. FM was also measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in some women after parturition. In normal pregnant women, FM on day 4 postpartum differed by 0.3 ± 0.9 kg as compared with the FM value compensated by actually measured intrauterine component weight and differed by 0.4 ± 0.9 kg as compared with the ultrasonically estimated FM value immediately before parturition. The FM values obtained by both compensation methods immediately before parturition strongly correlated with those obtained on day 4 postpartum (r = 0.987-0.988, n = 23, P<0.001). The FM values obtained by the DXA method positively correlated with those obtained by the BIA method not only immediately before parturition (r = 0.860; n = 62, P<0.001, SEE = 2.3 kg), but also on day 4 postpartum (r = 0.874; n = 62, P<0.001, SEE = 2.2 kg). During pregnancy, maternal FM increased and reached the level of 3.2 ± 1.9 kg in underweight women (body mass index: BMI <18), 2.8 ± 2.6 kg in normal-weight women (18-24), and 0.8 ± 5.2 kg in overweight women (>24). This new BIA system for measuring maternal FM is a simple and useful method that can be used for future nutritional management in pregnant women.
Key words: fat mass, total body water, pregnancy, BIA, gestational edema.
International Journal of Body Composition Research 2006 Vol. 4 No. 4 153-159
J. Nichols1, S. Going2, M. Loftin3, D. Stewart4, E. Nowicki4 and J. Pickrel1
1San Diego State University, San Diego, CA; 2University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; 3University of New Orleans, LA; 4 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
The purpose of this study was to compare fat-free mass (FFM) and percent body fat determined by two bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) instruments against criterion estimates determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a multi-racial/ethnic sample of adolescent girls. BIA was assessed in 151 girls (n=51 African-American; n=45 Hispanic; n=55 Caucasian; age 12.2 ± 1.2 yr) using the RJL Quantum II and the American Weights and Measures Body-Comp Scale (BCS). Percent body fat determined by BIA was significantly related to that determined by DXA (R2=0.87, SEE=2.8% for RJL vs DXA, P <0.0001; R2=0.71, SEE=4.4% for BCS vs DXA, P <0.0001). The agreement between DXA and BIA for FFM was also significant (R2=0.91, SEE=0.03 kg for RJL, P <0.0001; R2=0.79, SEE=0.04 kg for BCS, P <0.0001). The BCS overestimated FFM by 2.7 kg (P <0.0001) and underestimated percent body fat by over 4% (P <0.001). There were no differences in percent body fat between DXA and the RJL, and although the RJL significantly overestimated FFM, the absolute difference was <1 kg. Within each ethnic group, the RJL instrument more closely estimated FFM and percent body fat than did the BCS. Although both BIA instruments compared favorably with DXA, the RJL had better stability and accuracy than the BCS, for both the total sample and for the three ethnic groups. Considering its relatively low cost and minimal time required for technical training, BIA is a useful and appropriate technique for assessing body composition in adolescent girls.
Key words: body composition, body fat, children, ethnicity.
International Journal of Body Composition Research 2006 Vol. 4 No. 4: 161-167
S. Going1 , J. Nichols2, M. Loftin3, D. Stewart4, T. Lohman5, G. Tuuri6, K. Ring4, J. Pickrel2, R. Blew5 and J. Stevens4
1Department of Nutritional Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; 2Center for Behavioral and Community Health Studies, Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA; 3Department of Human Performance and Health Promotion, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA; 4Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 5Department of Physiology, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; 6School of Human Ecology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.
Aim: Equations for estimating % fat mass (%BF) and fat-free mass (FFM) from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) that work in adolescent girls from different racial/ethnic backgrounds are not available. We investigated whether race/ethnicity influences estimation of body composition in adolescent girls. Principal procedures: Prediction equations were developed for estimating FFM and %BF from BIA in 166 girls, 10-15 years old, consisting of 51 Black (B), 45 non-Black Hispanic (H), 55 non-Hispanic White (W) and 15 mixed (M) race/ethnicity girls, using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the criterion method. Findings: Black girls had similar %BF compared to other groups, yet were heavier per unit of height according to body mass index (BMI: kg·m-2) due to significantly greater FFM. BIA resistance index, age, weight and race/ethnicity were all significant predictors of FFM (R2 = 0.92, SEE = 1.81 kg). Standardized regression coefficients showed resistance index (0.63) and weight (0.34) were the most important predictors of FFM. Errors in %BF (~2%) and FFM (~1.0 kg) were greater when race/ethnicity was not included in the equation, particularly in Black girls. We conclude the BIA-composition relationship in adolescent girls is influenced by race, and consequently have developed new BIA equations for adolescent girls for predicting FFM and %BF.
Key words: Bioelectrical impedance, girls, adolescents, fat-free mass, race, ethnicity, body composition, percent fat
International Journal of Body Composition Research 2006 Vol. 4 No. 4: 169-175
J. Jackson 1, S. Lyons2 , P. Bishop1 , M. Richardson1 and Y. Neggers1
1University of Alabama , Tuscaloosa , AL ; 2Western Kentucky University , Bowling Green , KY , USA .
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of isothermal air on the measurement of body composition assessed by air displacement plethysmography (ADP). Methods: 15 males, (age: 31.4 ± 6.47 years) were tested in three different conditions: a control test using manufacturer's guideline s; a second test with subjects wearing a full-body lycra-type suit; and a third test with subjects having shaven all arm, leg, and torso hair. Results: Mean body fat percentage for the control, body suit and shaven tests were 20.7 ± 7.8%, 18.1 ± 8%, and 22.3 ± 7%, respectively. Linear regression analysis revealed that measurement of body density from both the body suit and the shaven conditions compared to the control condition significantly deviated from the line of identity. When calculating body fat, the shaven condition compared to the control condition significantly deviated from the line of identity while the body suit measurements compared to the control did not. Bland-Altman analysis revealed significant bias in body density measurements when comparing the control condition to the shaven condition. No other bias was observed for body density or body fat measurement comparisons. Conclusions: Accuracy of percent body fat as assessed by ADP was apparently affected by body hair. In situations where precise measurement of body composition is critical, it may be necessary to correct for this error.
Key words: air displacement plethysmography, isothermal air, adiabatic air, Bod Pod.
International Journal of Body Composition Research 2006 Vol. 4 No. 4: 177-183
C.C. Douglas1, A.L. Willig1, J.D. Ard1, M. López-Alarcón2 and J.R. Fernández1
1Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham , AL , USA ; 2Unit of Medical Nutrition Research, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico .
Objective: To explore the relationship between body composition and measures related to acculturation, health perception, and food intake and to explore the linear relationship between food groups described in the US Food Pyramid and body composition parameters. Design: The study considered a sample of 65 postmenopausal Puerto Rican women, aged 59-73 years, living in New York City . Results: Correlation analysis supported a positive association between acculturation and milk consumption (P = 0.03), and a relationship between health perception index with both BMI (P = 0.008) and fat mass (P =0.0153). Regression analysis demonstrated that body fat was significantly predicted by physical activity, and consumption of grains, fruits and vegetables. No direct relationship between acculturation and body composition was observed. Conclusions:
Overall, the results of this study support that physical activity and the consumption of vegetables, fruits and grains may be related to reduced levels of body fat in elderly immigrant Puerto Rican women. These results advocate the consideration of dietary quality to understand factors influencing obesity and its co-morbidities in minority populations, particularly in Hispanics. Effects of acculturation on minority groups require further exploration.
Key words: Puerto Rican, body composition, ethnicity, Hispanics acculturation, dietary, physical activity, body fat.
International Journal of Body Composition Research 2006 Vol. 4 No. 4: 185-189
L.C. Ward1, T. Essex2 and K. Sharpe1
1School of Molecular and Microbial Sciences, University of Queensland , Brisbane , Australia . 2ImpediMed Ltd. Brisbane , Australia .
Multiple frequency bioimpedance analysis (MFBIA) measures impedance at a few discrete frequencies. Typically, the measured impedance at a low frequency is used to predict extracellular water (ECW) while impedance at a higher frequency is used to predict total body water (TBW) by the use of empirically derived algorithms. By contrast bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) measures impedance at many frequencies and models the data to estimate resistance at zero (R0) and infinite frequencies (R8), which in turn are used to predict ECW and TBW respectively. A method and computer program are reported that allows estimation of (R0) and (R8) from MFBIA data provided that impedance is measured at a minimum of three frequencies. The method is compared with conventional bioimpedance spectroscopy.
Key words: multiple frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis; Cole model; mixture theory; bioimpedance spectroscopy