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Total body potassium by whole-body counting: A classic method that remains useful for body composition research
ZiMian Wang, Richard N. Pierson Jr, Hwa-yen Liu, Stanley Heshka, Jack Wang, Dympna Gallagher and Steven B. Heymsfield
Body composition and function in older people
Nicholas P. Hays and William J. Evans
Body composition: the fat-free mass index (FFMI) and the body fat mass index (BFMI) distribution among the adult Austrian population - results of a cross-sectional pilot study
Babak Bahador, Elisabeth Uitz 1, Katayoun Tonninger-Bahadori, Iris Pestemer-Lach, Markus Trummer, Rene Thonhofer, Helmuth Brath and Erich Schaflinger
The association between C-reactive protein concentrations and body composition in 19 to 56-year-old black South African women
S. Slabbert, H. J. De Ridder, S.H. Kruger, A.E. Schutte, C. Underhay and M. Van Lieshout
Genetic admixture is associated with visceral adipose tissue in Puerto Rican women
J.R. Fernández, A.L. Willig, A. Jones, M. D. Shriver, T. M. Beasley, J. Albu and D.B. Allison
International Journal of Body Composition Research 2006 Vol. 4 No. 3: 101-110
ZiMian Wang, Richard N. Pierson Jr, Hwa-yen Liu 1 , Stanley Heshka, Jack Wang, Dympna Gallagher and Steven B. Heymsfield 2
Obesity Research Center , St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10025; 1 Biomedical Engineering and Environment Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan; 2 Merck & Co., Inc. Rahway , NJ 07065 , USA .
The whole body 40 K counting-total body potassium (WBC-TBK) approach has a long distinguished history in body composition research. It was originally used for evaluation of total-body fat in the 1960s. However, more precise and accurate methods for total and regional fat mass have entirely supplanted the TBK-fat method. Although the TBK-fat method is no longer in use, recent studies support the continued use of WBC systems for body composition research. The measurement of TBK is currently applied for in vivo, non-invasive estimation of total-body protein mass, body cell mass, and skeletal muscle mass, and is especially suited to serial measurements in acute and chronic malnutrition. In addition, measurement of TBK is useful for studying water distribution, and exploring aspects of energy metabolism. This review summarizes advances in WBC-TBK approach, including derivation and validation of models. Using no radiation exposure, the WBC-TBK approach is non-invasive, safe, rapid, convenient, and simple to carry out, and can be applied in subjects of any age and physiological status as no active subject participation is necessary. In conclusion, the classic WBC-TBK approach, with modern advances in body composition models, remains a useful tool for nutrition research.
Key words: body cell mass, body fat, fat-free mass, resting energy expenditure, skeletal muscle mass, water distribution, total-body protein.
International Journal of Body Composition Research 2006 Vol. 4 No. 3: 111-121
Nicholas P. Hays and William J. Evans
Nutrition, Metabolism, and Exercise Laboratory, Donald W. Reynolds Institute on Aging, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, and Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205, USA.
Aging is associated with changes in body weight and body composition that have important consequences for physical function and health. Individuals aged 60-70 years typically have more body fat and less fat-free mass compared to adults aged 20-30 years, and the increase in body fat over this age interval is associated with excess morbidity, mortality, and healthcare-related financial expenditures. Individuals older than age 60-70 years typically experience declines in both fat and fat-free mass, and these declines have been associated with frailty and accelerated mortality. The causes of these changes in body composition are complex and inadequately understood, but physical inactivity, nutritional and hormonal factors, and activation of an adipogenic gene program in old age are potential etiological mechanisms. Strategies to minimize age-related body composition changes and their impact on health and function include both pharmacological and exercise-based interventions. Effective intervention strategies may improve body composition parameters and functional status either independently or synergistically. This review summarizes current evidence on the changes in body composition that commonly occur in older individuals and the consequences of these changes in regards to physical and physiological function. In addition, we review proposed therapeutic strategies for minimizing the changes themselves as well as their impact on function in this population. Given the projected large increase in the size of the older population in the USA and worldwide, a greater understanding of the relationship between body composition and function may allow development of more effective interventions for improving the health of the elderly.
Key words: Body weight, weight change, skeletal muscle, sarcopenia, visceral fat, adipogenesis, strength, resistance training, elderly.
International Journal of Body Composition Research 2006 Vol. 4 No. 3: 123-128
Babak Bahadori 1 *, Elisabeth Uitz 1 *, Katayoun Tonninger-Bahadori 2 , Iris Pestemer-Lach 3 , Markus Trummer 1 , Rene Thonhofer 1 , Helmuth Brath 4 and Erich Schaflinger 1
1 Department of Internal Medicine, State Hospital, Muerzzuschlag; 2 Department of General Surgery, Division of Pediatric Surgery, State Hospital,Oberwart; 3 Obesity Research Centre, Mitterdorf; 4 Diabetes Outpatients Clinic, GZ-Sued, Vienna, Austria.
*BB and EU contributed equally to this work.
Objective : It has been proven that low and high body mass index (BMI) values increase health risks and mortality, and are associated with variations in fat-free mass (FFM) and body fat mass (BF). Fat-free mass index (FFMI; kg/m 2 ) and body fat mass index (BFMI; kg/m 2 ) however are better measures of body composition. FFMI and BFMI being age-, sex- and population-specific, are more exact and informative measures. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine FFMI and BFMI values in subjects with normal, overweight, and obese BMI in Austria .
Methods : We measured the levels of FFM and BF in 153 healthy Caucasian men and 451 healthy Caucasian women between the ages of 18 to 80 years, using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. FFMI, BFMI, and %BF were then calculated for each subject.
Results : Predicted FFMI values were 18.1 to 21.7 kg/m 2 for men and 15.1 to 17 kg/m 2 for women within the normal BMI ranges (18.5-24.9 kg/m 2 ). Predicted BFMI values were 1.5 to 5.0 kg/m 2 for men and 3.4 to 8.0 kg/m 2 for women within the normal BMI ranges. BFMI values were above 8.0 and 11.7 kg/m 2 in men and women, respectively, for obese BMI (>30 kg/m 2 ). Normal ranges for %BF were 11.9 to 22.7 and 20.8 to 31.0 for men and women, respectively.
Conclusion: A major finding of this study was that a significant number of individuals had a lower FFMI and a higher FMI than predicted for their weight indicating the necessity of body composition measurements in the clinical practice to optimize diagnosis and treatment.
Key words: bioelectrical impedance analysis, fat-free mass, body fat, fat-free mass index, fat mass index, body composition, sex, obesity.
International Journal of Body Composition Research 2006 Vol. 4 No. 3: 129-135
S. Slabbert 1 , H. J. De Ridder 1 , S.H. Kruger 2 , A.E. Schutte 3 , C. Underhay 1 and M. Van Lieshout 2
1 North-West University, Potchefstroom , South Africa ; 2 Human Movement Sciences, Nutrition; 3 Physiology.
Objective: To investigate the association between circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and indices of body composition among 19 to 56-year-old black South African women.
Research Methods and Procedures: A case-case-control study of 101 urban African women. Measurements of serum high sensitivity CRP concentrations. Body composition as measured by body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR).
Results: BMI, WC and percentage body fat were all significantly correlated with CRP. BMI was found to be most strongly associated with elevated CRP concentrations among these women.
Conclusion: Indices of both total and abdominal adiposity were strongly associated with significantly increased concentrations of CRP. It is suggested that adiposity may also be a key promoter of low-grade chronic inflammation in these black South African women. Further studies should be performed to determine whether losing weight by exercise or diet is also associated with reductions in plasma CRP concentrations in the black South African population.
Key words: body mass index, percentage body fat, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, inflammation.
International Journal of Body Composition Research 2006 Vol. 4 No. 3: 137-143
J.R. Fernández 1 , A.L. Willig 2 , A. Jones 3 , M. D. Shriver 4 , T. M. Beasley 5 , J. Albu 3 and D.B. Allison 5
1 Department of Nutrition Sciences, Clinical Nutrition Research Center and Section on Statistical Genetics, Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL, USA; 2 Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL, USA; 3 Obesity Research Center, St. Luke's/Roosevelt Hospital, Institute of Human Nutrition, Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons, NY, USA; 4 Department of Anthropology, The Pennsylvania State University, PA,USA; 5 Clinical Nutrition Research Center and Section on Statistical Genetics, Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL, USA.
Objective: Greater visceral adipose tissue (VAT) has been associated with increased risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although differences in VAT among individuals of different ethnic/racial groups have been reported, the extent to which racial/ethnic differences in VAT represent genetic and/or environmental influences remains unclear. This investigation tested whether levels of VAT were associated with degrees of ancestral genetic admixture in a sample of Puerto Rican women.
Subjects: A sample of 63 postmenopausal Puerto Rican women residing in New York City was considered for the study (age: 59-73 y, BMI: 20.5-48.9 kg/m 2 ).
Measurements: Estimates of West African, European and Amerindian genetic admixture were obtained by thirty-five ancestry informative markers (AIMs). VAT was measured by a single computer tomography (CT) scan and adjusted for DXA-measured body composition. Measures of years of education, dietary perception, health status and physical activity were obtained through questionnaires and considered as covariates in the statistical model.
Results: Greater VAT was associated with greater European genetic ( P =0.013) and lesser West African genetic admixture ( P =0.001). No association was observed between VAT and Amerindian genetic admixture and no relationship was identified between any of the covariates and VAT.
Conclusion: These findings suggest an effect of European and African genetic ancestry on levels of VAT in Puerto Rican postmenopausal women. Our results provide support for the exploration of genetic factors in the understanding of racial/ethnic disparities in obesity and its co-morbidities.
Keywords: visceral adiposity, genetic admixture, racial differences, Hispanics, women, obesity