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Association between stage of HIV disease and self-perceived changes in body appearance
CL Gibert , G Bartsch , WM El-Sadr , JC Shlay , G Peng , J Wang , F Visnegarwala , A Carr and SS Raghavan
Bone mineral status assessment by ultrasound in pre-term infants
OM Oyafemi, KJ Ellis, IJ Griffin and SA Abrams
Comparison of estimated percentage body fat and fat-free mass in adults by a leg-to-leg bioimpedance and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry
V. Wahrlich, L.A. Anjos, R.M. Blew, S.B. Going and T.G. Lohman
Body cell mass: validation of total body potassium prediction model in children and adolescents
ZiMian Wang, Stanley Heshka, Jack Wang and Steven B. Heymsfield
Body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in endurance runners of different competitive standards
K. Hind, J.G. Truscott and J.A. Evans
International Journal of Body Composition Research 2005 Vol. 3 No. 4: 133-139
CL Gibert 1 , G Bartsch 2 , WM El-Sadr 3 , JC Shlay 4 , G Peng 2 , J Wang 5 , F Visnegarwala 6 , A Carr 7 and SS Raghavan 3 for the Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS (CPCRA)
1 Veterans Affairs Medical Center and George Washington University , Washington , DC; 2 CPCRA Statistical Center, University of Minnesota , Minneapolis , MN ; 3 Harlem Hospital and Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York , NY ; 4 Denver Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO; 5 St Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital , Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York , NY ; 6 Houston AIDS Research Team, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston , TX , USA ; 7 St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney , Australia .
Many HIV-infected patients report a change in body appearance. A 'Change in Body Appearance' questionnaire, previously validated, was used to assess self-perceived changes in body appearance over the four months before enrolment into a clinical trial for antiretroviral- naïve HIV-infected patients. Seven hundred seventy-nine patients completed the questionnaire. Associations by gender, age, race, prior AIDS-defining illness, log 10 HIV RNA, and CD4+ lymphocyte count, with self-perception of changes in body size at seven sites, were determined. Median age was 38 years, 54% were African-American, 21.2% women, and 40% had a prior AIDS-defining illness. A higher proportion of men reported thinning of the arms, while a higher proportion of women reported a decrease in size of breast and buttocks. Comparing men with or without a prior AIDS-defining illness, those with a prior AIDS diagnosis reported a higher frequency of thinning at six sites. For men, prior AIDS diagnosis and a lower CD4+ lymphocyte count were independently associated with perceived loss of body size at six sites. While for women no association with prior AIDS was noted and a lower CD4+ lymphocyte count was only associated with smaller buttocks. With advanced HIV disease, men and women had different perceptions of change in body appearance. Overall, the questionnaire identified changes in body appearance for men and would be clinically useful to monitor self-perceived changes in body appearance of antiretroviral-naive men.
Key words: body appearance questionnaire; gender differences; HIV or AIDS; self-perception.
International Journal of Body Composition Research Vol. 3 No. 4: 141-145
OM Oyafemi 1,2 , KJ Ellis 2 , IJ Griffin 1,2 and SA Abrams 1,2
1 Section of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College Of Medicine, Houston, Texas; 2 US Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service Children's Nutrition Research Center, Houston, Texas, USA.
Our objective was to measure bone speed of sound in relatively healthy preterm infants to assess its reproducibility, its relationship with post-menstrual age and age at which full enteral feeds were attained. This study was designed as a cross-sectional study of 40 (24 male, 16 female) non-ventilated premature infants at a postmenstrual age of less than 36 weeks at birth. Speed of sound measurements (Sunlight Omnisense 7000P instrument) were obtained on one occasion at the tibial midshaft of study infants once they attained a full feeding volume of at least 100 ml/kg/day. Measurement reproducibility was 0.8 ± 0.6% for repeat speed of sound measures in the same leg (n=17). Differences in measurements were 1.4 ± 1.0% for measurements made in both legs (n=39). Speed of sound (SOS) significantly increased with postmenstrual age (PMA) (y = 2384.7 + 17.25x; r 2 = 0.128, P < 0.03) while there was no significant correlation with length of time taken to achieve full feeds. There were no differences between speed of sound measures in those infants whose mothers did or did not ( P = 0.6) receive prenatal steroids. Tibial speed of sound was not significantly related to gender, race, or serum calcium, phosphorus or alkaline phosphatase activity. We conclude that speed of sound measurements are highly reproducible, increase with PMA, and the technique is well tolerated by relatively healthy preterm infants. No effects of early feeding or prenatal steroid use on SOS were seen.
Key words: Speed of sound, quantitative ultrasound, postmenstrual age, bone mineral status, bone mineral mass, preterm infants, premature infants, osteopenia
International Journal of Body Composition Research Vol. 3 No. 4: 147-152
V. Wahrlich 1 , L.A. Anjos 1,2 , R.M. Blew 3 , S.B. Going 3 and T.G. Lohman 3
1 Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2 Laboratório de Avaliação Nutricional e Funcional, Departamento de Nutrição Social, Universidade Federal Flumimense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 3 Department of Physiology, University of Arizona , Tucson , AZ ; USA .
Leg-to-leg bioimpedance analysis (BIA) is simpler and more suitable than traditional BIA techniques for assessing body composition (BC) in large epidemiological samples. Validation studies of current BIA systems have shown good performance compared to standard BC methods despite the concern that these devices measure only the lower body impedance. The aim of this study was to assess whether the introduction of waist and hip circumferences improves the prediction of BC of a leg-to-leg BIA system using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the criterion method. Eighty-nine healthy adults (aged 20-78 years) participated in the study (37 men and 52 women). The biases (mean difference) for both percent body fat (%BF) and fat-free mass (FFM) were low but significant ( P < 0.01). Inclusion of hip circumference, but not waist or waist/hip ratio, improved the estimation of both %BF and FFM. For both genders, the best predictive equation to estimate %BF DXA using multiple regression models included %BF BIA , age and hip circumference (R 2 =0.82; SEE=3.2% for men and R 2 =0.86; SEE=2.9% for women). FFM BIA alone was a poor predictor of FFM DXA (R 2 =0.74; SEE=4.2 kg for men and R 2 =0.73; SEE=2.5 kg for women). The best predictive equations to estimate FFM DXA included resistive index (stature 2 /Z), body mass, hip circumference, age and Z (R 2 =0.90; SEE=2.9 kg for men and R 2 =0.85; SEE=2.0 kg for women). A significant underestimation of %BF is evident using the leg-to-leg BIA but at the group level, %BF and FFM can be satisfactory predicted when the hip circumference is introduced in the predictive equations.
Key words: leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis, body composition, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry.
International Journal of Body Composition Research Vol. 3 No. 4: 153-158
ZiMian Wang, Stanley Heshka, Jack Wang and Steven B. Heymsfield
Obesity Research Center , St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York , NY 10025 , USA .
Body cell mass (BCM, in kg) is an important body component for monitoring growth and nutritional status. We previously validated a total-body potassium (TBK, in mmol) model in adults (BCM = 0.0092 × TBK), but the validity of the model for children and adolescents is unknown. The present study aims to first develop a TBK-independent BCM method and to then evaluate the TBK-BCM model in children and adolescents using the TBK-independent model as the criterion. Subjects were 55 healthy children and adolescents ranging in age 5-17 years who had the following measurements: body volume by air displacement plethysmography, total-body water by 2 H 2 O dilution, extracellular water by NaBr dilution, bone mineral by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and TBK by whole-body 40 K counting. BCM measured by the TBK-independent criterion and TBK model were highly correlated (r = 0.97, P < 0.001) and the BCM/TBK ratio was 0.0093 ± 0.0011 kg/mmol, not significantly different from 0.0092 ± 0.0009 kg/mmol as observed in adults. The group mean (± SD) BCM was 21.1 ± 9.6 kg by the criterion and 20.8 ± 9.1 kg by the TBK model ( P = n.s.). BCM measured by the criterion and by the TBK model were highly correlated (r = 0.98, P < 0.001). No significant differences were detected between the two BCM estimates using a Bland-Altman analysis (r = 0.17, P = 0.20). It is concluded that the model (BCM = 0.0092 × TBK) can be used in healthy subjects five years of age and older.
Key words: Nutritional assessment; Body composition; Pediatrics.
International Journal of Body Composition Research Vol. 3 No. 4: 159-164
K. Hind, J.G. Truscott and J.A. Evans
University of Leeds , Leeds , United Kingdom .
There are few data concerning 3-compartment body composition in endurance runners of different competitive levels. We aimed to compare fat mass, lean mass and bone mineral content (BMC) measurements by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in elite, county and club level runners. Our second aim was to investigate factors potentially associated with body composition. Three compartment body composition measurements were obtained using DXA, in a sample of 108 endurance runners (male n=44; female n=64) aged 18-50 years, participating at elite, county or club level. Training and menstrual history were assessed by self-report. There were no significant differences in body mass or BMI between competitive groups. Percent body fat and absolute fat mass were markedly lower in elite compared to county and club level runners (all P <0.001). Differences in body fat were independent of gender. There was an inverse correlation between weekly running distance and fat mass (male: r 2 =-0.485; female: r 2 =-0.215; P <0.001). Female oligoamenorrheoic runners had lower body fat, BMI and BMC ( P <0.005). Strong gender-independent correlations were observed between BMC and body mass (male: r 2 =0.483; female: r 2 =0.669; P <0.001) and between BMC and lean mass (male: r 2 =0.504; female: r 2 =0.527; P <0.001). Fat mass not total body mass, nor BMI, was the primary factor distinguishing between elite, county and club level runners. This discrimination was independent of gender and in part, may be explained by the amount of endurance training performed.
Key words: body composition, body mass index, lean, fat, bone, male, female, athletes, performance.