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50 Validation of self-reported versus measured height and weight among adult Singaporeans
S. A. Ng, R. S. Naidu, S. L. A. Tan and M. Deurenberg-Yap
51 Effect of occupation on the relationship between body fat percentage and body mass index in Indonesians
Paul Deurenberg, Syafri Guricci, Mabel Deurenberg-Yap, and Joseph GAJ Hautvast
52 Weight loss needed to maintain visceral adipose tissue during aging
G.R. Hunter, C. Lara-Castro, N.M. Byrne, S.O. Zakharkin, M.-P. St. Onge, D.B. Allison
53 Body composition and nutritional habits in professional ballet dancers
Marcella Malavolti, Marco Poli, Angelo Pietrobelli, Manfredo Dugoni, Ornella Trunfio and Nino C. Battistini
54 Comparison of software versions for body composition analysis using the PIXImus dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer
M.S. Johnson, N.M. Landy, E.P. Potter and T.R. Nagy
55 Body fat estimated from near-infrared interactance (Futrex 5000®) versus a four-component model in black men
D.R. Wagner, V.H. Heyward and D.W. Lockner
International Journal of Body Composition Research 2005, Vol. 3 No. 2: 43-47
S. A. Ng1, R. S. Naidu1, S. L. A. Tan1 and M. Deurenberg-Yap1,2
1Research and Health Information Management Division, Health Promotion Board, Singapore; 2National University, Singapore
Respondents from the National Health Survey (704 males and 712 females, aged 17 to 75 years old) were selected via quota sampling. Respondents were asked to report their weight and height prior to standardised measurements. Aim of the study was to assess the accuracy of self-reported height and weight and the sensitivity and specificity of estimating obesity prevalence in Singaporean adults based on these indicators. Of all respondents 75.4% were aware of their height and weight. The elderly (60–75 years old) and those in the overweight (BMI between 25 and 30 kg/m2 ) and obese (BMI = >30 kg/m2 ) categories were less likely to be aware of their height and/or weight compared to other categories. Males and females underestimated their weight by a mean (SD) of 0.3 (3.0) kg and 0.4 (2.4) kg respectively. Females overestimated their height by a mean (SD) of 0.7 (2.9) cm. The discrepancy in the estimated BMI derived from self-reported height and weight was significant but small for females (–0.4 (1.3) kg/m2). The sensitivity and specificity of estimated BMI for the overweight category were 81.4% and 91.5% for males and 71.7% and 95.8% for females. The sensitivity and specificity of estimated BMI for the obese category were 83.0% and 98.0% for males and 78.0% and 98.7% for females. The overall level of agreement between measured and estimated BMI was 0.77 for males and 0.77 for females using the Cohen’s Kappa test. The prevalence of overweight and obese respondents was underestimated by 3.6 and 1.0 percent point respectively using the estimated BMI. It is concluded that self-reported height and weight were accurate indicators of actual measurements with small systematic errors. However, they were not suitable indicators for the assessment of prevalence of obesity in the Singaporean adult population due to a low level of awareness of height and weight values amongst the population and the underestimation of the true obesity prevalence.
International Journal of Body Composition Research 2005, Vol. 3 No. 2: 49-53
Paul Deurenberg1, Syafri Guricci2, Mabel Deurenberg-Yap3, and Joseph GAJ Hautvast4
1Nutrition Consultant, Singapore; 2School of Public Health, Gedung D Lt.II, University of Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia; 3Research and Information Management Division, Health Promotion Board, Singapore; 4Emeritus Professor, Department of Nutrition & Epidemiology, Wageningen University, The Netherlands
Indonesians, like many Asian population groups, have a higher body fat percentage (%BF) for any given age, gender and body mass index (BMI) compared to Caucasians. Differences in body build are at least partly the reason for this, but also other factors, among which physical activity, are discussed. In the present study two groups with clear differences in occupation (as a surrogate for physical activity level) were studied with the main aim to see the impact of physical activity on the relationship between BMI and %BF. Eighty- six male white-collar workers (university personnel and government officials) and 52 harbour labourers participated in this body composition study. Weigh, height, skinfold thickness and total body impedance data were collected using standardized methods. %BF was predicted from skinfolds, impedance and BMI using published formulas. In addition total body water (TBW) was determined using deuterium oxide and fat-free mass (FFM) and %BF was calculated from TBW. The groups did not differ in age, or in height, but the white-collar workers were heavier (7.9 kg), had a higher BMI (2.5 kg/m2), a higher BF% (12.8) and a slightly lower FFM (1.2 kg). The prediction of BF% from impedance was accurate, but skinfolds over predicted (2.2 ± 1.8) BF% in the blue-collar workers and slightly underestimated (0.6 ± 4.9) BF% in the white-collar workers. The relationship between BMI and BF% was different between the two groups, the blue- collar workers having 9.7 ± 0.8 (mean, SE) percent points less body fat for the same age and BMI (ANCOVA) than their counterparts. It is concluded that occupation (physical activity level) has a clear impact on the relationship between %BF and BMI.
International Journal of Body Composition Research 2005, Vol. 3 No. 2: 55-61
G.R. Hunter1,2, C. Lara-Castro2, N.M. Byrne4, S.O. Zakharkin3, M.-P. St. Onge2, D.B. Allison3
1Departments of Human Studies, 2Nutrition Sciences, and 3Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 25294; 4School of Human Movement Studies, Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane Q4059, Australia
Aging is associated with a re-distribution of fat mass to the viscera. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is closely associated with increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, preventing increases in VAT with aging would reduce chronic disease risk. The purpose of this cross-sectional study in 228 Caucasian women, age 18 to 77 years, was to estimate weight losses required to prevent age-related increases in VAT. Computed tomography VAT and dual energy X-ray absorption % body fat were determined. Analysis of variance showed that body mass index (BMI, 3.0 kg/m2, P<0.05) and weight adjusted for VAT (78.7 cm2, P<0.01) increased but lean mass decreased (4.7 kg, P<0.01) with age. Linear piecewise (knot at 48 years) continuous regression (dependent variable weight and independent variables VAT and age) was used to estimate weight loss needed to maintain a constant VAT between 20 and 65 years. The estimated weight loss needed to maintain VAT at 40 cm2 was 3.3 kg between 20 and 48 years and 5.5 kg between 50 and 65 years. BMI reductions were 0.9 kg/m2 between 20 and 48 years and 1.1 kg/m2 between 50 and 65 years. Equations were validated on a separate sample of 39 pre-menopausal and 29 post-menopausal women. It is estimated that a weight loss of almost 9 kg between ages of 20 and 65 is required to maintain low VAT in individuals in the middle to upper range of the normal BMI category. However, since a BMI of 21 kg/m2 at 20 years of age corresponds to less than 40 cm2 VAT, and that is the case at age 65 years, very lean individuals should only maintain their young adult body weight as they age to remain at low metabolic risk.
International Journal of Body Composition Research 2005, Vol. 3 No. 2: 63-68
Marcella Malavolti1, Marco Poli1, Angelo Pietrobelli1,2, Manfredo Dugoni1, Ornella Trunfio1 and Nino C. Battistini1
1Applied Dietetic Technical Sciences Chair, Modena and Reggio Emilia University; 2Pediatric Unit, Verona University Medical School, Verona, Italy 2
Object of this study was to study fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) and nutritional habits of professional ballet dancers. Our secondary aim was to evaluate daily energy intake and to compare nutritional habits with level of daily recommended consumption (LARN) or recommended dietary allowance (RDA). Twelve ballet dancers (seven males and five females), aged between 23-42 years were studied. All the subjects trained at least 5 h per day (mean ± SD: 8 ± 3). We used four different techniques to assess body composition: skinfold thickness measurements (TH), bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA), air displacement plethysmography (BOD-POD) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The latter was considered the criterion method. FM using DXA was 6.2 ± 2.0 kg and FFM 56.3 ± 12.4 kg in the total population. FM was 5.2 ± 1.1 kg and 6.9 ± 2.3 kg in females and males using DXA, respectively. FFM in females was 44.6 ± 4.8 kg and 64.7 ± 8.2 kg in males. Correlation between FM derived by skinfolds vs FM measured by DXA was significantly higher (r = 0.90) than between FM estimated by BIA (r = 0.54) and by BOD-POD (r = 0.48). Positive correlations were found between DXA FFM measurements and FFM anthropometry (r = 0.99), between DXA FFM and FFM estimated by BIA (r = 0.98) and between FFM measured by BOD-POD (r = 0.99). Total energy intake in male subjects was less than LARN or RDA (2464 ± 256 vs 3100 ± 379 kcal/day). On the other hand, total energy intake in female subjects was slightly higher than LARN or RDA (2439 ± 391 vs 2120 ± 130 kcal/day). This was probably due to a higher energy consumption from lipids in female subjects (32 ± 7% in males vs 36 ± 7% in females). Our results suggest that FM estimated by anthropometry is to be preferred to BIA in this specific population, possibly because the main part of FM in this specific population is only subcutaneous.
International Journal of Body Composition Research 2005, Vol. 3 No. 2: 69-72
M.S. Johnson, N.M. Landy, E.P. Potter and T.R. Nagy
Division of Physiology and Metabolism, Department of Nutrition Sciences, and the Clinical Nutrition Research Center, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham AL 35294-3360, USA
We have previously validated the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for measuring body composition of mice using the GE-Lunar PIXImus and software version 1.42 . Since that report, newer versions of the software have been released. The purpose of the present study was to compare results from our original study with results analyzed using two newer versions of software (versions 1.44 and 1.45). Body composition data (lean tissue mass [LTM], fat mass [FM], bone mineral content [BMC], and bone mineral density [BMD]) were obtained from DXA scans of twenty-five, anesthetized male C57Bl/6J mice (6–11 weeks old; 19 to 29g). Relative to version 1.42, versions 1.44 and 1.45 significantly (P<0.001) overestimated LTM and BMD and underestimated FM and BMC. However, compared to carcass analysis, versions 1.44 and 1.45 significantly overestimated both FM and LTM and underestimated BMC. Results from 1.44 and 1.45 were highly correlated with carcass values for all body composition parameters. Prediction equations were developed for the two new software versions. Applying the prediction equation from 1.42, to the data obtained from 1.44 and 1.45 resulted in FM and LTM that were worse than if no equation was used. However, using their own developed equations resulted in data that were not significantly different than that from carcass analysis. These data suggest that software-specific equations are necessary for comparing DXA-derived data to that of chemical analysis.
International Journal of Body Composition Research 2005, Vol. 3 No. 2: 73-76
D.R. Wagner1, V.H. Heyward2 and D.W. Lockner3
1Health, Physical Education, & Recreation Department, Utah State University, Logan, UT; 2Center for Exercise and Applied Human Physiology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; 3Nutrition/Dietetics Program, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA
The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the near-infrared interactance (NIR) Futrex 5000® device as a method to estimate the percent body fat (%BF) of black men. This NIR study was unique in that a multicomponent (4C) model that corrected total body density (measured by hydrodensitometry) for total body water (determined by isotope dilution) and total body bone mineral (obtained from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) was used as the reference measure of %BF. On average, the Futrex 5000® NIR device underestimated the %BF of 30 black males, aged 19–45 y, by 1.9% BF (P < .05). Furthermore, the prediction error was high (SEE = 4.1% BF, TE = 4.5% BF), the 95% confidence interval was large (–10.1% BF to 6.3% BF) and the individual error in the NIR estimate exceeded ± 3.5% BF for 50% of the sample. The %BF estimates from the Futrex 5000® did not meet the established criteria for accuracy in body composition assessment, and we can not recommend it as a tool for estimating the %BF of black men.
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